Past Perfect Simple

Se traduce como un HABIA + participio pasado


  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • She only understood the movie because sha had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance
  • Had you ever visited the US before your trip in 2006?
  • yes, I had been to the US once before.
  • We had had the car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Ales finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house becasue they had owned it for more than forty years.
  • I hadn’t waited ….?
  • I had been (I’d been)
  • You had gone (you’d gone)
  • She had met (she’d met)
  • He had played (he’d played)
  • It had rained (it’d rained)
  • We had bought (we’d bought)
  • They had studied (they’d studied)


No es una regla pero si una recomentación para no liarse con el posicionamiento del ‘is XXX not, have XXX not’ All negative questions in English must take a contraction.*

  • Had you studied English before you moved to new york?
  • Had you studied english before you moved to NY?
  • Hadn’t you studied English before you moved to NY?
  • Hand’d  I Studied English before I worked at UV?
  • Had Susan ever studied THAI before she moved to thailand?


Mind, want, make, let


First, ‘mind’ means ‘importar’.

RULES (verb pattern):

1. Mind + ing

Would you mind opening the window, please? I’m hot.

2. Do you mind if…?

Do you mind if I open the window? I’m hot.

Common mistake: Would you mind open the window, please? I’m hot.

Phrases with mind:

I don’t mind: no me importa, no pasa nada
Mind your own business= métete en tus asuntos
Example: Why don’t you just mind your own business? (por qué no te metes en lo tuyo y me dejas tranquilo/a)

Make up your mind = decídete
Example: Are you coming with me? Make up your mind!

To have something in mind = tener algo en mente
Example: What do you have in mind? (qué tienes en mente?)

Change your mind = cambiar de opinión
Example: Don’t change your mind about this matter,please.

Speak your mind = decir lo lo que piensas
Example: You can speak your mind, but you also have to back up your words by action.

Mind your head = cuidado con la cabeza (que te das)

En el metro (cuidado con el hueco)


Let and allow are the same in meaning, but their structure is different. You have to pay attention to it, as it is a subtle difference!


1. Let + somebody + infinitive (without to)

Example: let me x know if you are coming as soon as possible (x means nothing here, no to)

2. Allow + somebody + to + infinitive


Mum, am I allowed to play a computer game now? (British children ask this question meaning: me dejas…? Puedo…?)

You are not allowed to smoke in here, only on the balcony.

Remember! The pronunciation of “allow” = /əˈlaʊ/

And remember as well: let – let – let = Irregular verb, the three forms are the same!


Make + somebody + infinitive (without -to) = llevar a una persona a hacer algo


You make me smile = me haces sonreir

I make my students speak English in class.

Common mistake: I let my children to go to school on their own


make – made – made = irregular verb

Another thing about “make”: when it is used in the passive, then we need -to. Example: I was made to speak English in class (my teacher made me speak). “Was made” is a passive.


1. want + to infinitive

Example: I want to go to the dentist next week.

2. want + somebody + to + infinitive

Example: I want you to pass your English exam: quiero que tú apruebes tu examen de inglés.

In this case, we have a subject (I) and and second person, somebody (you). This is the structura en English, whereas in Spanish, we use a subjunctive (apruebes).

Common mistake: I want that you pass your English exam

I want that… is not possible in English!

EXERCISE: translate the following sentences:

Quiero que mi hija aprenda inglés
No quiero que tú llegues tarde a casa
¿Quieres escuchar música conmigo?
No quiero que me esperes
Juan quiere aprender un segundo idioma

Quiero que mi hija aprenda inglés = I want my daughter to learn English
No quiero que tú llegues tarde a casa = I don’t want you to arrive home late
¿Quieres escuchar música conmigo? = Do you want to listen to music with me?
No quiero que me esperes = I don’t want you to wait for me
Juan quiere aprender un segundo idioma = John wants to learn a second language. Remember the -s for 3ª person singular.

any more, no longer (ya no), any longer

  1. “no longer” is a bit more formal. It also depends on where you place the words. By placing “him” at the end of the sentence you give the statement more weight.
  2. If you repeat it a few times “any more” is a bit softer in tone. But in my opinion “anymore” and “any longer” can both be used in the same way.
  • “Anymore” and “any longer” come at the end of a sentence.
  • “No longer” can be placed in the middle.

Note: you want to say “relationship” instead of “relation”.

A) She is no longer in a relationship with him. 
B) She isn’t in a relationship with him anymore.
C) She isn’t in a relationship with him any longer. 

Participle Clauses / Clausulas de participio

Las oraciones de participio (participle clauses) son oraciones subordinadas que presentan información de forma concisa y se forman con un gerundio (present participle) o un participio (past participle).

En inglés escrito es un recurso muy habitual, ya que se puede aportar mucha información sin que la oración sea demasiado larga o complicada.

Having washed her hair, Susan reached for the hair-dryer and scissors.

Holding the hair-dryer in her left hand, Susan cut her hair with the scissors in her right hand.

Blown to the right by the hair-dryer, her hair could easily be cut.

Having been cut, her hair looked strange.

Have you ever seen anyone cutting their hair this way?

Future Perfect / Future Continuous

Sujeto + will have + “past participle” del verbo principal  
He will have finished. el habrá terminado
I will have finished. yo habré terminado
  • I will have been here for six months on June 23rd. (yo habré estado aqui 6 meses el 32 de junio)
  • By the time you read this I will have left. (Cuando leas esto yo hable salido)
  • You will have finished your report by this time next week. (tu habrás terminado el informe la semana que viene)
  • Won’t they have arrived by 5:00? (ellos no habrán llegado a la 5?)
  • Will you have eaten when I pick you up? (to habrás comido cuando te recoja?)

Future continuous

Sujeto “simple future” de ‘to be’ “present participle” del verbo principal  
You will be watching Tu estaás viendo ….
I will be staying Él estará permaneciendo …
  • This time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.
  • By Christmas I will be skiing like a pro.
  • Just think, next Monday you will be working in your new job.

A place where practice writing in English